Flat foot may cause pain during running due to the absence of the arch which lessens the shock on contact with the ground.The arch makes room for the foot to absorb the shock.
The arch allows the tibia, knee and hip to be in alingment.Without the arch the knee would cave in, and thus putting more stress on the medial colateral ligament of the knee and the glute medius becomes weak being over stretched all the time. The knee caving inward may cause pattela problems and the muscles of the hip not working properly may cause back pains.
To see if you have flat feet stand on a piece of paper and with a crayon draw around the contoure of the foot. If you can draw the full foot even in the inner area may mean you have flat feet.
The arch of the foot is supported medialy by the posterior tibialis. And lateraly by the peroneus longus(long fibular muscle) and peroneus brevis (short fibular ) muscle .
ORIGIN Upper half of posterior shaft of tibia and upper half of fibula between medial nerve crest and interosseous border, and interosseous membrane
INSERTION Tuberosity of navicular bone and all tarsal bones (except talus) and spring ligament
ACTION Plantar flexes and inverts foot. Supports medial longitudinal arch of foot As well as being a key muscle and tendon for stabilization, the tibialis posterior also contracts to produce inversion and assists in the plantar flexion of the foot .
ORIGIN Upper two thirds of lateral shaft of fibula , head of fibula and superior tibiofibular joint
INSERTION Plantar aspect of base of 1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform, passing deep to long plantar ligament
ACTION Plantar flexes and everts foot. Supports lateral longitudinal and transverse arch. NERVE Superficial peroneal nerve (L5,S1)
Peroneus brevis and peroneus tertius have the same insertion
ORIGIN Lower two thirds lateral shaft of fibula
INSERTION Tuberosity of base of 5th metatarsal
ACTION Plantar* flexes and everts foot . Supports lateral longitudinal arch
NERVE Superficial peroneal nerve (L5, S1)
In order to stregthen the arch you need to streghten these muscles.
Wearing high soles will help for the moment ,but won’t correct the problem ,only ameliorate the symptoms so you can perform your daily activities.
Flexor digitorum longus supports the lateral arch.(outer side of the foot),so it’s not really an issue to strenghten this muscle ,but streghtening the flexor hallucis longus IS because it supports the inner arch of the foot.
In order to recover a flat foot you need to work the calf muscles as well as the muscles of the plantar region of the foot.
1.Put a towel at the tips of your fingers and try to drag it towards you mostly try with your big toe.
2.Ankle raises are good while contracting the upper portion of the calf ,and try to keep tension at the end and lower yourself slowly.
3.Rolling the plantar face of the foot with a tennis ball may help.
4.Trying to keep your balance on an unbalance surface.(on the tip of a single leg)